Historians believe that Callaway County existed long before the records document activity about the area. The first settlement in the county was 1808 at Cote Sans Dessein along the Missouri River. Early leaders considered the Territory between Wainwright and Tebbetts for the First Missouri State Capital. Callaway County was organized in 1820 and was named after Captain James Callaway who was killed by Indians. Elizabeth became the county seat. Many of the villages and towns in the county today represent places where railroad stations existed in early years.

The 2006 Census Bureau estimated the population of Fulton to be 12,387 with the entire Callaway County at 42,541.

The Flag of the Kingdom of Callaway

Be it resolved by the County Court of Callaway County, Missouri that a flag having a royal purple background, emblematic of the royalty of the county; bearing two blue bars representing the battles of Moore’s Mill and Overton’s Run; having its’ center on a white background an outline of this county over which there is a golden crown; indicating that this is a kingdom; over which there are five jewels representing the five major rivers in the county, Missouri, Auxvasse, Middle, Cedar and Town Creek; the crown having a red lining representing the precious blood shed by the citizens of this county in the War Between the States; the bars heretofore noted bearing eight stars representing the townships in 1891, they being Bourbon, Cedar, Cote Sans Dessein, Liberty, Nine Mile Prairie, Round Prairie, and St. Aubert; and the center star representing Fulton; be and is hereby adopted as the official flag of Callaway County, Missouri; that upon all public occasions it shall be displayed; that the Kingdom of Callaway Historical Society be and is thereby made the official custodian of this flag which was today viewed by us, and that we hereby grant to aforesaid society the exculsive privelege to make and disseminate all representations of this flag.

Done by order of the Callaway County Court.

Signing the resolution were:
A.T. West, Sr. – Presiding Judge
E.E. Hord – Judge of the Eastern District
Howard Davis – Judge of the Western District